We all know that we test theories by subjecting them to experimental test, allowing us to potentially falsify hypotheses. But where do theories come from? A realist philosophy of science, and the method of retroduction, allows us to use empirical evidence, even from “failed” experiments, to generate as well as test theory.
Science is in crisis, and there are many initiatives for how to improve it. The solutions that are proposed risk being counterproductive. They overemphasize the importance of good data and rigorous hypothesis testing, and devalue other factors in the advancement of knowledge.